Sama was born as the second son to General Samer Shumshere Jung Bahadur
Rana and Kirti Rajya Laxmi in1902 in Gyaneshwor. As the son of a Rana
- the then ruling regime in Nepal at the time - Bal Krishna Sama was
able to receive the best education available in the country. Later
on in life, he never experienced financial problems unlike many writers
of his time.
completed his high school from Durbar High School in Rani Pokhari
and took up science in Tri Chandra Campus. During his second year
of academic studies, he was sent to Dehradoon for army training
as an army captain, afterwards he became a Lieutenant Colonel, by
the then prime minister Chandra Shumshere who did not receive Sama's
interest in writing positively. At the time, the Nepalese people
suffered under a harsh rulership; they had to abide with the rules
and regulations of an autocratic Rana government. Sama was not happy
about leaving his studies mid-way and was less happy about the political
situation of the country. He got married to Mandakini in 1921.
his own home, the environment was strained. His grandfather Dambar
S.J.B Rana used to beat up house servants violently creating ugly
experiences for young Sama. And his father was more concerned about
leading a luxurious lifestyle. Only his grandmother and mother showed
compassion and kindness to the poor and needy. Sama spent a lot
of time alone at home finding peace in solitude and gradually he
spent more time in art and literary activities.
started publishing his writings in reputed magazines such as Sarada,
Udhyog, Shahitya Shrot, etc. Afterwards, he shortened his surname
"Shumshere Jung Bahadur Rana" to "Sama" because
he no longer wished to be associated with a ruling regime that had
once governed Nepal with autocracy. His drama "Bhater"
which was published in Pragati in 1953 clearly shows his feelings
on the issue of human rights.
Krishna Sama is known as one of Nepal's greatest dramatists. During
his time, he was also considered as the "Shakespeare"
of Nepal. In fact several of his dramas have been inspired by Shakespeare's
works. His dramas such as "Prem Pinda", "Buhartan",
"Tapobhumi", "Atyadhunikta", and "Bhater"
present the social context of the Rana era; "Mukunda Indira"
and "Mutuko Byatha" show the emotional and romantic side
of Sama's personality. "Amit Basana", "Boksi",
"Talamathi", and "Andhabeg" are based on the
human psychology. And his dramas on historical personalities are
"Amar Singh", "Bhimsen Ko Antya", and "Bhakta
Bhanubhakta". "Birami Ra Kuruwa" deals with philosophy
while "Prahlad" and "Dhruba" are based on religious
No doubt Sama's contribution to Nepalese drama is immense and today
Nepal can proudly present some of the best works in this field.
also wrote stories, poems, essays, compositions, and biographies.
His contemporaries Laxmi Prasad Devkota and Lekhnath Poudyal were
involved in writing poetry. "Aago Ra Paani" and "Chiso
Chulho" are his popular epics, he wrote an essay on Nepalese
art entitled "Nepal Lalit Kala" as well as a biography
Hamra Rastriya Bhibhutiharu and an autobiography Mero Kabita Ko
Aradhana, Part I and II. "Kaikai" is his most well-known
short story collection which was published in 1938.
important is the role Sama played in changing the name "Gorkha
Bhasa Prakashini Samiti" into "Nepali Bhasa Prakashini
Samiti". He felt that the word "Gorkha" did not truly
represent the people of Nepal and when Juddha Shumshere Rana became
the prime minister of Nepal, Sama was able to bring its use into
official work. He also became the chairman of the samiti for several
years and worked as a lecturer of Nepali language and literature
in Tri Chandra College. In 1955, he became director of Nepal Radio
and chief editor of Gorkhapatra. In 1967, when the Royal Nepal Academy
was established, he became a member and later on the vice chancellor
of the academy. He retired from work in 1971.
his retirement, Sama continued writing and published many of his
poems in nationally reputed magazines like Madhuparka, Ramjham,
etc. He also read out many of his unpublished works during literary
programs. Among his unpublished dramas are "Gangalal",
"Aja", "Milinad", "Prem", "Chinta",
"Prandaan", etc. In fact many of his works remain unpublished
was awarded with the Tribhuwan Puraskar from Nepal Rajakiya Pragya
Prathistan in 1972. The same year he received the Bishesh Upadhi
from Tribhuvan University and in 1978, the Prithvi Pragya Puraskar
from Pragya Pratisthan. He died in 1981.